Apply a clinical decision making framework in the assessment and prioritisation of health problems in individuals undergoing surgery

The Merger of Two Competing Hospitals
September 28, 2020
A study to compare between DAX and CT scan to diagnose osteoporosis in elderly women ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 2 ABSTRACT.. 3 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 7 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.. 8 1.0 Overview.. 8 1.1 Statement of the Problem.. 9 1.2 Research Question. 9 1.3 Aims and Objectives. 10 1.4 Importance of this Review.. 10 1.5 Summary. 10 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12 2.0 Overview.. 12 2.1 Ultrasonography: A Major Advance in Healthcare Practice. 12 2.2 The Prevalence of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 13 2.2.1 Signs and Symptoms of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 14 2.2.2 Factors Predisposing Sonographers to WRMSD.. 15 2.2.3 Preventing the Onset and Reducing the Severity of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 18 Risk Assessments. 18 Ultrasound Equipment 18 Education. 18 The Work Environment 19 2.3 Summary. 19 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY.. 20 3.0 Overview.. 20 3.1 Criteria for Formulating the Research Question. 20 3.2 Study Design. 22 3.3 The Search Strategy and Study Selection. 25 3.4 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria. 26 3.5 Final Study Selection. 27 3.6 Data Extraction. 27 3.7 Quality of the Chosen Studies. 28 3.8 Summary. 29 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS. 30 4.0 Overview.. 30 4.1 Study Selection. 30 4.2 Quality Assessment of the Chosen Studies. 33 4.3 Characteristics of the Selected Studies. 33 4.4 Prevalence and Development of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 37 4.4.1 Techniques and Protocols. 38 4.4.2 Sample Size and Correlations. 38 4.5 Factors Influencing WRMSDs in Sonographers. 40 4.6 Summary. 43 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION.. 44 5.0 Overview.. 44 5.1 Summary of the Evidence. 44 5.2 Limitations. 46 5.3 Findings within the Context of the Current Evidence. 47 5.4 Research Recommendations. 48 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION.. 50 References. 51 Appendices. 57 List of Tables 22 Defined Elements of the PIO Framework Used for this Research Study. 3.1 32 Examples of Reasons for Exclusion of Studies 4.1 35 Characteristics of the Selected Studies 4.2 List of Figures 31 The Study Selection Process using the PRISMA Statement. 4.1 40 Total Sample Size and Distribution Across and Within All Six Papers 4.2 List of Appendices Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).. 57 muscle pain, which is an indicator of various diseases and disorders. 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September 28, 2020

Apply a clinical decision making framework in the assessment and prioritisation of health problems in individuals undergoing surgery

Topic: Case Study

Order Description

Assessment 1: Case Study

The assignment is to be presented in a question/answer format not as an
essay (i.e. no introduction or conclusion). Each answer has a word limit; each answer must be
supported with citations. Students must provide in-text referencing and a Reference List must be
provided at the end of the assignment.

Due date: Friday 28th March, 5pm (Week 5)
Weighting: 40%
Length and/or format: 1500 words
Learning outcomes assessed:
2. Apply a clinical decision making framework in the assessment and prioritisation of health
problems in individuals undergoing surgery;
5. Determine appropriate nursing therapies and describe medical and allied health interventions
for selected episodic health alterations and illnesses
6. Plan evidence-based, safe, person-centred care for individuals undergoing surgery including
education and discharge planning; (ACU Graduate Attribute: 5,6)
? Reference List (adhering to APA style)

Case Study
Beth is a 35 year old woman who has recently married her long term partner. Both Beth and her husband have professional careers, and are well established in their private lives. They have been discussing the thought of having children and are planning the ?right time? in the next 1-2 years. Recently, whilst in the shower Beth noticed a lump in her left breast. Following this she visited her GP and got a referral for an ultrasound and mammogram, and on review she was referred to a surgeon. A biopsy and lymph node removal indicated that further surgical intervention was required.
Beth is now being admitted to undergo a left breast mastectomy and a DIEP reconstructive flap. During her nursing admission you note that Beth has a past history of asthma, exacerbated by stress and environmental factors, but that she is generally fit and well.
After approximately 6 hours in the OR Beth arrives in the recovery room where the anaesthetist hands over that her general anaesthetic was uneventful and she remained stable throughout the operation. The anaesthetist mentions that just before transfer to recovery she was given ?a little more? morphine to assist with pain relief when she wakes up. In addition it is handed over that the breast tissue has been sent to pathology for further examination, the flap needs strict routine observations, the pressure dressing is to remain intact until surgical review the next day and there is a low suction Jackson-Pratt drain insitu.
The recovery nurse begins her recovery assessment of the patient and notes Beth?s vital signs. BP 100/70, HR 85, SpO2 92%, Temp 35.0 and her RR 8. On closer respiratory inspection Beth?s breathing is quite shallow and has a distinctive ?noise? on expiration, with a slight tracheal tug noticed. All other recovery observations are stable at this time. As Beth starts to rouse the respiratory ?noise? and tracheal tug becomes quite evident, as does Beth?s anxiety and stress levels. Her vitals are now BP 130/90, HR 100, SpO2 96%, Temp 35.0 and RR is now 28.
After a long stay in PACU, Beth is now comfortable and ready for discharge to the ward. The charts are complete with an IV fluid order for Hartmann?s 2/24hrly, with numerous bags to follow. Antiemetic and Analgesic orders including Kytril 6-8/24 and Ondansteron 6/24, a PCA order of morphine commenced in PACU at 1mg/ml with a 5 minute lockout, and a PRN order for O/IV Paracetamol 1g. Beth has an IDC insitu with 1/24 readings. The surgeon?s orders are strict regarding the care and observation of Beth?s surgical site and flap reconstruction. The low suction drain is to remain insitu for 24-48hrs in which it will be reviewed prior to removal.
The next morning after handover you review Beth and her overnight progress post surgery and documents. You note that Beth has voided approximately 30-50mls per hour according to her FBC.As Beth has had a reconstruction you know that this constitutes minimal urine output and may require surgical review. You also note that according to her PCA observations chart she has had many ?demands? of the PCA but her pain control does not seem adequate. Beth draws your attention to her surgical site and you note that the colour of the flap is normal and seems to be perfusing well. A routine Hb is due to be taken this am.

Question 1
Whilst the patient is in PACU, identify and discuss airway management (and rationales) as related to the case study (400 words)
Question 2
In order of priority, using evidence based literature, identify and discuss the nursing interventions (and rationales) required to care for the chosen patient in the first 24 hours upon returning to the ward.
Nursing intervention/care presented needs to be accurate, relevant and specific to the chosen case study. (800 words)
Question 3
As part of your role as a primary nurse for your patient, you are required to initiate discharge planning. Identify the allied health professional/s you would refer your case study patient to and discuss the rationale behind your referral, what treatment may this health professional/s provide. (300 word)

TEXTS AND REFERENCES: Required text(s)
Farrell, M., & Dempsey, J. (2011). Smeltzer and Bare?s textbook of medical-surgical nursing (3rd Australian and New Zealand ed.). Sydney: Wolters Kluwer Health/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McCance, K., Heuther, S., Brashers, V., & Rote, N. (Ed.). (2010). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (6th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.

McKenna, L. & Lim, A. G. (2012). Pharmacology for nursing and midwifery. (1st Australian and New Zealand Edition). Broadway: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Required texts (From BN 1st year):

Berman, A., Snyder, S., Kozier, B., Erb, G., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., et al. (2012). Kozier and Erb?s fundamentals of nursing. (2nd Australian ed.) French?s Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.

Tollefson, J. (2010). Clinical psychomotor skills: Assessment tools for nursing students (4th ed.). South Melbourne: Cengage Learning

Recommended references: Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2006). National competency standards for the registered nurse. Retrieved from Guidelines-Statements/Codes-Guidelines.aspx

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2013). Codes and guidelines. Retrieved from Guidelines.aspx

Forrester, K., & Griffiths, D. (2010). Essentials of law for health professionals (3rd ed.). Sydney: Mosby Elsevier.

King, J., Hawley, R., & Weller, B.F. (Eds.) (2008). Australian nurses? dictionary (4th ed.). Sydney: Balliere Tindall.

Perrin, R. (2012) Pocket guide to APA Style (4th ed.) Boston Massachusetts: Wadsworth/


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